© 2006 by
book may not be reproduced in any form, without
written permission of the Publisher Ken Wooldridge.
Scripture quotations are from the original King James
version of the Bible.
printing, January 2001.
Wooldridge Ministries International
Tn. 37912-0925, USA
The Original Languages of the Bible
This is a synopsis of the Old Testament.
The Old Testament is the first part
of a holy book called the Bible and consists of thirty-nine
The Old Testament period is about
four thousand years, from Adam to the first coming
of Christ. To understand this period, here is an historical
review from the first book Genesis, to the last book
In the first verse we are introduced
to Elohim, who is God the Father, Jesus the Son and
the Holy Spirit. The act of Gods creation is described
in chapters one and two. God created the Universe,
the Earth, the Garden of Eden, all creatures, Adam
and Eve. Adam and Eve were given charge over the Garden
on Eden and were commanded to replenish and subdue
the Earth. In recent years, epics of the creation
story have been found in different forms, on tablets
in the ruins of Babylon Nineveh, Nippur and Ashur.
Mans fall into sin.
It was at the time that satan tempted
Adam and Eve that they experienced the fall into sin
and were banished from the Garden of Eden. Cain and
Abel were born to them and Cain committed the first
murder by killing his brother.
Enoch was born in Adams lineage and
was a true man of God. He walked in such a close relationship
with God that he was translated into Heaven.
Man continued to multiply, inhabited
the earth, and in rebellion to God built the Tower
of Babel. In recent studies, it has been confirmed
that the original language of man was pure Hebrew.
As a result of mans rebellion, God caused this one
language to be changed into many different languages.
Here the various basic language groups of man were
Noah. (2000 B.C.)
Sin greatly multiplied upon the earth.
God destroyed the earth with a flood but saved Noah
and his family. From this time to Abraham six city
kingdoms and dynasties existed. They were:
The Kish dynasty,
The Lagish dynasty,
The Erech dynasty,
The Accad dynasty,
The Ur dynasty,
The Babylon dynasty.
Abraham. (1900 B.C.)
It is out of the Ur of the Chaldees,
that Abraham, Sarah and Lot were called.
They traveled 600 miles northwest
to Haran. After the death of Terah his father, Abraham
moved to Shechem and then on to Bethel. Here Abraham
and Lot were separated and Lot went on to the plain
of Sodom. God destroyed Sodom because of its wickedness,
but saved Lot and his two daughters. It was here that
Isaac was born.
Abraham continued living near Bethel
in Canaan. He raised Isaac in the ways of God. At
the command of God, He took his son Isaac to be sacrificed
at Mt Moriah, which was about ten miles south of Bethel,
where Jerusalem is today. God spared Isaac from being
sacrificed and provided a ram in his place. Abraham
was old and when Isaac became of age, Abraham arranged
for his servant Eliezer to find a wife for Isaac.
He found Rebekah, they were married and she bore him
two sons, Jacob and Esau.
Esau sold his birthright to his brother
Jacob was married to Leah and Rachel
and they bore him twelve sons who were the progenitors
of the twelve tribes of Israel. They experienced a
great famine in the land and all seventy members of
the family went to Egypt for help.
Joseph one of Jacob's sons, was sold
by his brothers into slavery in Egypt. By Divine providence
he was promoted by Pharaoh to be Governor over Egypt,
second only to Pharaoh. Joseph forgave his brothers
and took care of his father Jacob and his family.
Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. (1500 B.C.)
It was here in Egypt that the children
of Israel lived for 400 years and grew to a nation
of about 2 million people. At this time a Pharaoh
arose that persecuted the Israelites.
God provided a deliverer called Moses.
Pharaoh had all the male children killed under the
age of three months. Moses was placed by his mother
Jochebed in the Nile River and protected in a basket
of bulrushes. She engineered a rescue plan by using
his older sister Miriam and Moses was found and adopted
by Pharaoh's daughter.
Moses was raised in Pharaohs Palace
in royalty and was destined for the Throne of Egypt.
He then discovered that he was an Israelite and joined
with his nation. In this process he murdered an Egyptian
and fled to the wilderness of Midian.
Here he sojourned for 40 years where
God met with him at the burning bush. God commanded
him to go and deliver the Israelites from bondage
Moses returned to Egypt where he challenged
Pharaoh. With ten mighty plagues, God delivered the
Israelites. The night they kept the Passover, they
departed from Egypt. God opened the Red Sea before
them and they passed through it. The Egyptian armies
were destroyed as they tried to follow them.
Moses led the Israelites on to Mt
There God gave Moses and Israel
the Ten Commandments, their Civil and Health laws.
(Exodus 20:1-17, 21:1, 23:33, Leviticus 11:1, 27:34.)
Moses and Israel built the Tabernacle
as God prescribed it.
(Exodus 35:1 - 40:38.)
Moses inducted Aaron as High Priest
and the Levitical Priesthood.
(Leviticus 6:1 - 8:36.)
Various feasts, offerings and sacrifices
(Leviticus 1:1 - 9:24, 23.1-44.)
God performed the most incredible
miracles for Israel in the wilderness.
He provided for, sustained and protected
gave them Manna and Quails to eat and water to drink
in the wilderness. Because the Israelites were disobedient
and did not want to enter into the Promised Land,
they had to wonder in the wilderness for 40 years.
At the end of this period, God took away Moses and
raised up a new leader in his place. His name was
Joshua led the Israelites over the
Jordan River into the Promised Land. They marched
seven days around the city of Jericho, blew their
trumpets, its walls fell down and they conquered the
city. They continued their march of victory until
the whole Promised Land had been conquered and taken
into possession. There were many noteworthy battles
that took place. The one that stands out the most
is where God commanded the sun to stand still allowing
Israel to defeat their enemy.
It was during the time of the Judges
that Israel experienced apostasy. There were four
major Judges that ruled over Israel and each of them
ruled for 40 years.
Gideon. Gideon was known for
his victory over the Midianites with only 300 men.
He was known for his great strength
in defeating the Philistines. His spiritual backsliding
was tragic, but his return to God spectacular. In
his final moments, he pulled down the two pillars
of the Philistine temple and killed thousands of Philistines.
Ruth was a Moabite and married one
of Naomi's two sons, who were from Bethlehem. Her
husband died and instead of returning to Moab she
insisted on staying with her mother-in-law Naomi.
It was then in her destitute situation that Boaz had
compassion on her, took care of her, redeemed and
married her. She was King David's great Grandmother
and he was born of her lineage.
2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings and 1 & 2 Chronicles.
Samuel was born in a town called Ramah
six miles north of Jerusalem. His mother Hannah prayed
earnestly for a child and promised to give her child
to God for service. Samuel was born and later given
to the care of the High priest Eli, to grow up and
work for God. He served as a Prophet, Priest and Judge
of Israel. During his ministry, he crowned Saul and
David as Kings of Israel.
Saul was crowned and reigned as King
over Israel for 40 years. After being disobedient
to God, Israel was defeated in battle and the Ark
of the Covenant was captured by the Philistines. Saul
and his son Jonathan were killed in the battle.
While King Saul was alive, Samuel
anointed the youngest son of Jesse, David to be King
of Israel. David had a very close friendship with
Jonathan, Saul's son. Because of jealousy Saul persecuted
and tried to kill David. David fled for his life and became a fugitive. A number of
years after Saul's death, Samuel crowned David, King
He was very popular in Israel for
He was talented and could play and sing psalms
He was very brave and in an historic moment
defeated the giant Goliath.
He was very successful in leading King Saul's
armies in battle.
He was a very loving and kind person.
David was a very successful King of
Israel and achieved many notable things:
He united Israel and established Jerusalem
as her Capital.
He defeated all of Israel's enemies.
He retrieved the stolen Arc of the Covenant
from the Philistines.
He accumulated sufficient wealth to rebuild
He rebuilt the nation of Israel to great heights
He wrote many of the Psalms that were sung
in everyday Temple worship.
Unfortunately, David committed a grievous
sin by committing adultery with Beth Sheba and then
had her husband killed. He dearly loved her and married
her and she bore him a son called Solomon. Later on,
David also experienced a great emotional trauma when
his son Absalom rebelled against him and was killed.
From birth, Solomon was groomed for
the Throne of David. His brother Adonijah plotted
against Solomon while David was on his deathbed, but
lost his bid for the throne.
Solomon was crowned King and his 40
year reign became one of peace and prosperity. God
allowed him to choose anything he desired and he chose
wisdom. So great was his wisdom that he became famous
throughout the world. He wrote over 3000 proverbs
and 1005 songs. He wrote the Biblical books of Proverbs,
Ecclesiastes and the Song of Solomon.
He built the Temple in its magnificence
and when it was dedicated, Gods presence filled it
and everyone was slain to the floor because of Gods
The nation of Israel experienced its
greatest heights at this time. At the height of its
economical prosperity, the 25 tons of gold collected
each year, could be valued at over $200 million today.
Solomon's army ruled with great power and his navy
of merchant ships sailed throughout the known world.
This era was a highlight in Jewish history.
Unfortunately Solomon did not continue
to serve God like his father David did. He married
700 wives of whom many were idolatrous and he had
After the death of Solomon, Israel
was divided into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms.
Jeroboam his one son, became
the King of Israel known as the Northern Kingdom.
Rehoboam his other son became
the King of Judah, the Southern Kingdom.
There was continuous strife and war
between these two Kingdoms.
The Northern Kingdom. ( 933 to
After Jeroboam, 19 Kings followed
him in succession.
Most of these Kings were evil and
From 800 to 875 B.C. two great Prophets,
Elijah and Elisha, were used of God to save
Israel. Elijah was miraculously used to call fire
from heaven on Mt Carmel upon the sacrifice, as a
sign of God. He was later supernaturally translated
into Heaven by a fiery chariot. His mantle fell on
Elisha who did twice as many miracles as Elijah. He
multiplied the widow's oil and raised a boy from the
dead. He healed Naaman the Leper. He had Prophet schools
at Bethel, Jericho and Gilgal.
The Assyrians destroyed this Kingdom,
in 721 B.C.
The Southern Kingdom. (933 to 586
After Rehoboam, 20 Kings followed
him in succession.
Of these Kings, 6 were good and 14
This Kingdom was destroyed in 606
King Nebuchadnezzar took the Jews
captive to Babylon.
During the time of these two Kingdoms
there were 15 Prophets.
An asterix (*) behind their name indicates
that a Book of the Old Testament is named after them.
Elijah 875 - 850 B.C.
850 - 800
Joel (*) 840 -
790 - 770
780 - 740
760 - 720
745 - 695
740 - 700
Zephaniah (*) 639 - 608
630 - 610
Jeremiah (*)626 - 586
Habakkuk (*) 606 - 586
586 - 535
606 - 534
592 - 570
During this time, these two men were
used by God to bring about the restoration and the
unification of Judah and Israel.
In 538 a proclamation was given by
King Cyrus to allow the Jews to return to their land.
There were three different returns
In 536 B.C. Zerubbabel returned with
42,360 Jews and their possessions to Jerusalem
In 457 B.C. Ezra returned with 1574
men. He was a Priest and returned to teach the Law
of God and beautify the Temple.
In 444 B.C. Nehemiah returned as Governor,
with an army escort from Artaxerxes, who was the stepson
of Queen Esther. Nehemiah was sent to rebuild Jerusalem.
After rebuilding the Temple, they
rebuilt the Gates and the Walls of Jerusalem. All
twelve tribes of Israel were represented by the returning
Jews. The 12 bullocks and he-goats that were sacrificed
on their behalf signify this. (Ezra 2:70, 6:17, 8:35)
It was also during this restoration
period, that God used the following prophets.
520 - 516 B.C.
Zechariah (*)520 - 516 B.C.
450 - 400 B.C.
(478 - 420B.C.)
It was about this time that Esther
a Jewess became Xerxes wife and Queen of Persia. Haman
plotted against the Jews to have them all killed.
With the help and advice of Mordecai she saved the
Jews from the massacre. The Feast of Purim is held
until this day to commemorate this event. Esther paved
the way for the work of Ezra and Nehemiah in rebuilding
Persian rule. (430 - 332 B.C.)
Not much more is known of this period
and for the most part it seemed to be quiet.
(331 - 167 B.C.)
Alexander the Great ruled the world
and after his death his four generals continued his
reign. Things remained mainly peaceful for the Jews.
Then Antiochus Epiphanies re-conquered Israel. He
devastated Jerusalem, desecrated the Temple and killed
the Jews. This brought about the Maccabean revolt.
Rule. (167 - 63 B.C.)
Mattathias a Priest, together with
his five brave Sons, revolted and with great courage
took back Jerusalem. The Temple was purified and re-dedicated.
This was the origin of the Feast of Dedication. Judas
his son re-established the High Priestly religious
and civil authorities in Judea.
(63 B.C - 70 A.D.)
During this time in 37 B.C., Herod
the Great became King of Judea and to obtain Jewish
favor built a magnificent Temple in Jerusalem. It
was during his reign that Jesus Christ the Son of
God was born in Bethlehem of Judea.
This brought to a close, the era
of the Old Testament.